I was thinking back when I first started waterfowl hunting. Having never done it before, I was blessed (spoiled/ruined for life) with the opportunity to cut my teeth at one of, if not the, best places to hunt ducks in Ohio. The place i hunted used steel shot a year or two before it was mandated. We watched a study re: the effectiveness of steel shot. This "film" may or may not be the one I saw way back when, but shows some interesting data. The hunters were expert shooters. Shot sizes used were BB, 2, 4, 6. Speed was approx. 1330fps. Payloads were 1 1/8. The one guide (shot 500 ducks/geese) remarked less crippling...yes, less. Remember, these were early steel shot loads....things have improved since then! If you have the time...about 30 minutes, take a look! Field Testing Steel Shot (1980) on you tube.